Gang Prevention

Bryan Stevenson Delivers Five Key Messages During 2013 Summit Closing Remarks

"That's going to make you tired, tired, tired," Ms. Rosa Parks once said to Bryan Stevenson, Founder and Executive Director of the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI). Along with Ms. Parks' words, Johnnie Carr's rejoinder in that conversation, "That's why you've got to be brave, brave, brave," is a message to all National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention cities to continue an exhausting, challenging, and worthy struggle.

Cities Working Together to Reduce Youth Violence

The National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention (the Forum) is an interagency effort for localities to share knowledge and experience in what works and what doesn't work in preventing youth and gang related violence.

Highlights from the 2012 Summit on Preventing Youth Violence

Representatives from Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Memphis, Salinas, and San Jose gathered in Washington, DC on April 2 and 3, 2012 for the second Summit on Preventing Youth Violence.

Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs

Since the mid-20th century, gang violence in this country has become widespread—all 50 states and the District of Columbia report gang problems, and reports have increased for 5 of the past 7 years. Despite the steady growth in the number and size of gangs across the United States and the criminal behavior and violence they spawn, little is known about the dynamics that drive gangs and how to best combat their growth. For instance, no consensus exists on how gangs form, and few gang prevention programs have been rigorously evaluated.

National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention Working Session 2011

Representatives from Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Memphis, Salinas, and San Jose gathered in Washington, DC on October 31 and November 1, 2011 for the National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention Working Session.

National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention Working Session 2012

On December 10 and 11, representatives from the ten cities in the National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention (Forum) met together in Washington, DC. This was the first time representatives from all ten cities in the Forum – Boston, Camden, Chicago, Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Salinas, and San Jose – had an opportunity to share their work and exchange ideas.

September 2013 Summit on Preventing Youth Violence

On September 26 and 27, representatives from the Administration, Congress, local authorities, community advocacy groups, grantees, and youth from 10 cities participated in the 2013 Summit on Preventing Youth Violence in Arlington, Virginia. The third annual Summit was hosted by the National Forum on Youth Violence Prevention (Forum), which comprises 10 communities—Boston, Camden, Chicago, Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Salinas, and San Jose—and a collaboration among the U.S.

Federal Data

Tracking gang statistics and trends can help to assess the demographics of gangs in the U.S., including age range, prevalence, location, and types of crime associated with gangs. This information can help to target prevention initiatives and interventions, and determine youth at risk for gang involvement.

Gang Activity and Violence

Although gang activity1 in the U.S. showed a decline in the mid 1990’s to 2000, it increased from 2001 to 2005 and has since remained constant. Over the past decade, annual estimates of the number of gangs have averaged about 25,000 nationally and the number of gang members has been about 750,000.2

  • In 2009, larger cities and suburban counties accounted for the majority of gang-related violence and more than 96 percent of all gang homicides.3
  • During 2009-2012, cities with 100,000 or more persons saw gang-related homicides increase by 13 percent.4
  • In Chicago and Los Angeles, nearly half of all homicides were attributed to gang violence from 2009-2012.5

Demographic Characteristics of Gang Members

  • Between 1998 and 2009, gang members were overwhelmingly male with less than ten percent of total gang members being female. Learn more about the involvement of girls in gangs and juvenile delinquency.  
  • While the majority of gang members are adults, as of 2008, two out every five gang members are under 18, as reported by law enforcement.6
  • The prevalence of youth under 18 in gangs is higher in smaller cities and rural communities where gang problems are less established, compared to larger cities.7
  • Between 1996 and 2008, gang members were more likely to be Hispanic/Latino and African-American/black than other race/ethnicities. Specifically they reported gang members were 50 percent Hispanic or Latino, 32 percent African American, 10 percent white, and 8 percent identifying as another race or ethnicity.8

Resources

National Youth Gang Survey Analysis
This annual survey of law enforcement agencies is developed and implemented by the National Gang Center and is used to assess the extent of gang problems by measuring the presence, characteristics, and behaviors of local gangs in jurisdictions throughout the country. 

2011 National Gang Threat Assessment
The 2011 National Gang Threat Assessment is a comprehensive annual report developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Violence by Gang Members, 1993-2003 (PDF, 2 pages)
This brief from the Bureau of Justice Statistics discusses national crime rates, violent assaults, and the percentage in which a gang or gang member was identified as the perpetrator. Rates of gang violence are given by gender, race, and age.

National Gang Center
The National Gang Center website features the latest research and discussion about gangs, evidence-based anti-gang programs, as well as links to tools, databases, and other resources to assist in developing and implementing effective community-based gang prevention, intervention, and suppression strategies.

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
The NCVS is the nation’s primary source for information on criminal victimization. Data is reported on the likelihood of victimization by certain types of assault and by different segments of the population such as women, the elderly, and racial groups.

Uniform Crime Reports
These reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation summarize arrest data from police agencies across the country, from 1995 to the present day. Topics covered include crime in the U.S., hate crime, and law enforcement officers killed and assaulted.

1 According to the National Gang Center, gang activity includes gang graffiti, drug sales, firearms use, aggravated assault, burglary, robbery, theft, and motor vehicle theft.
2 Egley & Howell, 2011
3 Egley & Howell, 2011
4 Egley & Howell, 2012
5 Egley & Howell, 2012
6 National Gang Center, 2012
7 National Gang Center, 2012
8 National Gang Center, 2012